Recently, I have been working on quantum algorithms that apply various quantum gates. There, the direction in which the quantum is measured is fixed, often by projecting it onto the Z axis. On the other hand, quantum algorithms that change the measurement method, that is, change the orthonormal basis and use it, are also important. For example, there is the Ekert protocol, which is the basis of quantum key distribution. I've already written about Ekert in this article, so I won't go into any further explanation, but I've revised the app that demos it this time. The situation is shown below.
The left side of the figure shows the case where there is no eavesdropping, and the right side shows the case where eavesdropping was detected. An important aspect of the Ekert protocol is the use of Bell's test, or quantum entanglement.